Global PCM based Building Services Application Examples
Økern Portal aims to achieve a BREEAM-excellent rating. Hence, it includes biodiversity through extensive green roofs and low energy consumption, waste, pollution to ensure a sustainable build and extended life cycle. To this end M&E design utilise as much as off-peak energy as possible by dry coolers and +13C (55F)PCM based 12,000 MWH (3,410 RT-h) TES combination so majority of the year PCM based TES design would not only operate the water chillers operating at their highest efficiency as well as shifting the day peak loads it enables to you significantly reduced number of chillers for the peak loads. Furthermore, TES would also provide a stand-by capability for the system as a whole.
The Farmiloe Building dates back to Victorian periods with typical architectural characteristic completed by Browne & Robinson in 1868. The Farmiloe Building became a Grade II listed building on 1991 and used by George Farmiloe & Sons as its base until 1999. In 2014, plans were announced to transform the building to a state of then art offices as a development programme. Being right in the center of London and Grade II status did not deter project team to explore environmentally friendly To this end, a Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is considered to be useful tool to shift the peak load and effectively reduce the machinery size and handle daily load variations. The following energy strategy is applied to achieve the minimum impact of the building. PCM tank stores the waste energy from the heat pumps while the heat pump is utilised for the heating services. Building is provided with approx. 1,500 kWh(426 ton-h) +13C ( 55F) PCM thermal energy store that is cooled at night using lower cost of energy or when the ambient temperature is cooler, increasing the coefficient of performance of the heat pump. The thermal store is then used during day peak periods to drive the cooing systems instead of using the heat pump for cooling or top up the cooling loads while the heat is running. This waste heat recover / free cooling concept drastically reduced the amount of energy used by the HVAC system.
Electricity supply rates differs significantly during the day and any load shifting helps to reduce the overall operational costs.Existing chilled water based A/C system peak loads are shifted by simply adding 7.4 MWh (2,100 ton-h) +8C (47F) PCM thermal energy storage (TES) in 2 nos tanks with minimal modifications for the chille water circuit. By simply shifting the day peak loads to off-peak night period it is estimated not only a reduction of approximately 15~20% actual power consumption but most importantly avoiding day time punitive electricity rates overall annual running cost could be reduced dramatically. These savings are so impressive as it is estimated a pay back less than 2 years for the overall retrofit PCM-TES installation in their factory in Taiwan. Installation is carried by an investment company who has already installaeda few similar PCM-TES system as an Energy Management Contract.
Techtronic Industries Company Limited
Existing chilled water based A/C system provides cooling for the clean rooms and production areas which is essential to keep the production going 24/7. By simply running the existing chillers over-night utilising spare capacity to build 4.25 MWh (1,200 ton-h) +8C (47F) PCMthermal energy storage day-time one can shut down the chillers for a few hours in order to avoid these punitive electricity rates.
Electricity supply rates differs significantly during the day and any load shifting helps to reduce the overall operational costs. Existing chilled water based A/C system peak loads are shifted by simply adding 5.3 MWh (1,500 ton-h) +8C (47F) PCM thermal energy storage (TES) tanks with minimal modifications for the chilled water circuit. By simply utilising the excess capacity over-night from the installed chillers existing system charges the PCM tanks using conventional 5C (47F) water and later this stored energy utilised during day time to reduce the peak power demand Compared to the original system, incorporation of PCM System, it is recorded that the daily electricity consumption is reduced by 882.98 kWhe (6150.2 - 5267.2) which correspondences to an energy reduction rate of approximately 14.36%
GKG Precision MACHINE Co. Ltd., dongguan, china (270KB)
Existing chilled water based A/C system provides cooling for production areas which is essential to keep the production going 24/7. By simply running the existing chillers over-night utilising spare capacity to build 4.25 MWh (1,200 ton-h) +8C (47F) PCMthermal energy storage day-time one can shut down the chillers for a few hours in order to avoid these punitive electricity rates. TES tank is a site built concrete tank next to the existing plantroom.y.
Existing chilled water based A/C system provides cooling for production areas which is essential to keep the production going 24/7. By simply running the existing chillers over-night utilising spare capacity to build 4.25 MWh (1,200 ton-h) +8C (47F) PCM thermal energy storage day-time one can shut down the chillers for a few hours in order to avoid these punitive electricity rates. TES tank is a site built concrete tank next to the existing plantroom.By simply shifting the day peak loads to off-peak night period it is estimated not only a reduction of approximately 15~20% actual power consumption but most importantly avoiding day time punitive electricity rates overall annual running cost could be reduced dramatically.
Considering 55C (130F) peak day time ambient temperature vs. 28C (82F) night time ambientcondition if one can store that cool night energy and utilising this FREE stored energy during day peak period one can reduce the outside air cooling demand during peak ambient conditionssignificantly. For this purpose a special tunnel built to accommodate the PCM containers whereby when the surrounding air temperature is less than the PCM solution generally during night time, these containers freeze naturally by the surrounding cooler night ambient and later this stored energy in the form of latent heat can be released back to the air supply system during daytime to cool the incoming air for the outside air supply requirement for the museum. Almost the total daily sensible heat gains due to outsideair supply can be absorbed by the passive cooling tunnel. As the outside air intake is crucial for public spaces like museums by simply storing cool night energy the overall cooling demand can be reduced significantly especially locations whereby the day time ambient reaches as high as 55C (130F) anywhere in the Middle East.Each chamber 2.5m(8’) (W) x 2.0m (61/2’) (L) x 2.5m (8’) (H) filled with 10 wide x 58 high FlatICE stack.Total 4 chambers accommodate 9,280 FlatICE filled with S32 (+32C/ F) PCM solution providing 2.0 MWh (595 RT-h)TES capacity.
jeddah / makkah / madhina / kaec, K.S.A. pcm energy storage system (177 kb)
High speed trains serving between Jeddah & KAEC and Holly cities connected with local stations in each city but as the ambinet temperarures during day time exceeding 55C (131F) levels as oposed to night time of 30C (86F) . Hence, a simple +10C (50F) PCM energy storage using conventional 7C (45F) to charging the TES tanks ( Jeddah = 3,200 kWh (909 RT-h) / Madhina 3,200 kWh (909 RT-h) / KAEC 3,200 kWh (909 RT-h) / MAKKAH (10,000 kWh ( 2,840 RT-h) over night enables the designer not only shifting day peak loads to night time and effectively reducing the number of chillers required for the peak load but also by running the chillers at night time with lower ambinet conditions reduced the actual power consumption as much as 35~45% in comparison with the day operation for a given cooling load and furthermore rnning cooler chillers increase the life of the machines and reduce the maintennace cost in the long run.
New Terminal 3 for the Bergen Airport utilise 4 x 60 m3 10C (50F) PCM tanks with ~10MWH (2,840 RT-h) energy storage to shift the peak loads and spread the cooling loads over 24 hours and effectively reduce the cooling machinery, peak power demand and annual running cost by storing excess capacity from the chillers at overnight lower ambient & low load conditions.
Thermal Energy Storage (TES) bridges the time gap between energy requirement and energy use. This PCM-TES campus installation near Oslo, Norwayutilises the installed infrastructure and by spreading the load over a 24 hour period one can installed half the number of mechanical cooling machines for the same peak loads.Like any other educational facility bulk of the peak load occurs once the buildings are occupied but after office hours this large peak load subsides significantly. This campus PCM energy storage can be considered as a useful tool to spread the loads over 24 hours periods and thereby not only reduced the initial investment cost but also it offers reduced operational cost. 200 m3 (52,834 USG) pressurised 3 Nos tank buried and landscaped next to the building accommodating 40,000 FlatICE containers filled with +10C (50F) PCM Providing 9.0 MWh (2,560 RT-h)TES Capacity
Like any commercial building whereby a large cooling demand required during day time but very little or no cooling demand over-night, Installed PCM Thermal Energy Storage (TES) offered a great opportunity to utilise the cooling machinery over-night using lower electricity rates as well as higher efficiencies due to lower night time ambient in Israel and effectively enabling to shift the peak loads. Hence, PCM based TES offered not only an environmentally friendly design but also provided a significant operational running cost savings. Also having a static system a PCM energy storage system can be considered as a maintenance free system providing a stand-by capability in case of power cuts or any major machinery failures. 100 m3 ( 26,417 USG)Atmospheric rectangular tank loaded with 20,000 FlatICE filled with S9 (+9C/49F)PCM Providing 4.5 MWh (1,278 RT-h)TES capacity.
PCM energy storage spreads the loads over 24 hours periods and therefore a carefully balanced PCM energy storage not only reduces the initial investment cost but also it offers reduced operational cost. Utilising the diversification for a large scale energy centres like University of Bergen, Norway PCM energy storage (12,000 kWh (3,000 Ton-hr) using +10C (50F) PCM material acts as a buffer to handle large spikes, hence, steady overall operation for the system.
A video link of the system can be watched http://www.nrk.no/nett-tv/indeks/295683/
Cosidering a large swing between day and night temperature as well as a significant cost difference between peak and off-peak utility cost an addition of a 13 m3 (795 USG) tank filled with +10C (50F) FlatICE containers providing 550 kWh (156 RT-h) load shifting capability offered the end user a flexibility, reducen runnig cost and further stand-by capability.
MULBERRY SHOP, BOND STREET, LONDON (500 KB)
Mulberry shop in central London Bond Street is located in one of the Grade I listed building in which any alteration opportunities restricted dramatically. Nevertheless, a functioning shop with lots of lights and people still requires air conditioning. Unfortunately, the external surfaces available was no where near to the full scale air conditioning cassette units and therefore designers incorporated as many air conditioning outdoor as they can which ended up just about 50% of the full pakair conditioning load. 500mm (2”) tubes filled with PCM is arranged as heat exchanger block charged by either free cooling over night or of ten ambient is above the PCM temperature by the installed air conditioning machinery. For the missing 50% of the load a Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is considered to be a useful tool by simply running the air conditioning machine over-night to charge the PCM modules filled with 22C (72F) TubeICE in a heat exchanger format. By simply charging these tube bundles over-night not only able the operators to utilize free energy if and when the outside air is lower than the PCM but also even if they have to charge the PCM bundles by means of mechanical cooling they could use firstly using lower over-night electricity rates and secondly using lower ambient conditions which leads to higher efficiency of the mechanical cooling and therefore reduce their annual operation costs as much as by 50%.
This building is rewarded the LEED 2009 Platinum Ward and achieved 31/37 score and PCM energy storage using a 25 m3 (6,625 USG) tank filled with +10C / 50F FlatICE containers providing 1,250 kWh (355 RT-h) load shifting capability for the operator provided a useful to achieve this high score.
Conventional chilled water system complimented using 30 m3 (~8,000USG) tank filled with +8C (47F) FlatICE containers providing 1,300 kWh (369 RT-h) load shifting capability from peak periods to off-peak periods as well as providing a stand-by cooling capability without the need for a generator.
As being in central London the only way to add any TES capacity was to build a 40m3 site built sectional pre-insulated rectangular tank which is filled with 8C (47F) to compliment the existing chilled water circuit providing ~ 2,000 kWh (568 RT-h) load shifting capability as well as increasing the cooling capability.
Using FlatICE filled with (47F) PCM in a 45 m3 (~12,000USG) tank chilled water circuit can shift the peak loads as much as 2,000 kWh ( 568 RT-h) and provide a full stand-by capability in case any power failure as well as utilsing the low night ambient and utility cost reduce significant annual running cost.
State of the art Cleantech-2 building incorporates 11.5C (52.7F) PCM tank with a capacity of holding 28,000 FlatICE containers providing 7,200 kWh (2,00 RT-h) enegy storage capacity to shift the peak loads.
PCM energy storage extends the operation periods of a CHP. Rather than shutting down the CHP system by adding a cold +10C (50F) PCM energy storage (2,000 kWh (568 Ton-hr) simply it can either use the surplus waste heat or electricity to charge a coolth energy storage while providing the required heat or electricity output. This concept has been successfully applied for the National Theatre site in London whereby the building had requirements for all three services i.e. electricity, cooling and heating all year round.
PCM based TES tanks with 420 kWh (120 RT-h) capacity filled with +8C (47F) FlatICE containers provide a back up facility for the data centre cooling as opposed to generators to run the cooling machinery. In case of any power failure these PCM tanks handle the cooling without the chillers.
PCM storage is added for the existing chilled water circuit in order to provide a data centre back up in case of power failure as well as load shifting. In stead of a generator back up to run the chillers this system has a +8C (47F) , 6 m3 (1,590 USG) , 270 kWh (77 RT-h) PCM tank permenantly charged on the supply like of chilled water 5~7C (45~50F) and if the power is lost this stored energy can handle the 2 hours emergency cooling.
Redevelopment and modernization of the Federal Center South complex near Seattle, USA funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, will provide a secure base for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
The building is expected to attain gold certification in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design from the U.S. Green Building Council. A number of energy saving technologies are incorporated as part of the design such as extensive use of natural daylight, and an energy-efficient heating, ventilation and air conditioning system that uses under-floor air distribution. 1,050 kWh (300 ton-hr) using +13C (55F) PCM energy storage is also selected as part of this energy reduction design. Further details can be found;
Qatar's bid for FIFA 2022 Worldcup, a full scale demostration stadium using only SUN to run air conditioning using PCM energy storage 5,000 kWh (1,420 Ton-hr). Using parabollic solar concentrators oil is heated to drive the absorbtion chiller which in return charged a large PCM tank filled with +10F (50F) FlatICE containers and later once the sun goes down this stored energy provided the cooling for the enclosed stadium as a totally off-grid system.
Geothermal heat pump system can heat or cool while using the ground source but this building using PCM based TES both hot (1,200 kWh (4,095 MBtu) using 46C (115F) PCM solution) and cold 900 kWh ( 256 RT-h) using +10C (50F) PCM soluton) side if the H/P are stored above ground in TES tanks and therefore this new concept simultaneously can prove heating and cooling from a single central plant to control both the space temperature but the humidity too as this was critical for the Italian Electronic factory application.
Large scale coolth PCM storage as part of the district chilled water circuit applied for a West Australian office / city centre complex. Utilising the existing machinery the new extension cooling loads are covered by simply running the existing system over-night and store the surplus capacity in 80m3 (21,200 USG) site built rectangular tank filled with 12,500 FlatICE using +8C (47F) PCM solution providing 4,000 kWh (1,136 RT-h) cooling capacity.
Passive ceiling heat pipe + PCM comfort cooling application in the UK. Using standard ceiling fans and PCM+Heat Pipe arrangement provided a hybrid 22C (71F) PCM based dynamic passive cooling. Over-night exposed fin section of the PCM+Heat Pipe acts as condenser while the other side froze the PCM and during day-time the same exposed section reveresed and acts as evaporator and provide cool downward air for cooling.
As the hospital heating and cooling loads vary significantly a simple 20 m3 hot water TES tank is found to be the optimum solution and provides 930 kWh (3,173 MBtu) heating load shifting while a seperate 30 m3 PCM tanks filled with +10C (50F) FlatICE containers provides 1,500 kWh (426 RT-h) chilled water cooling load shiftng capability which enbaled the designers to reduce both heating and coling equipment sizes as much as by half.
Water based heat pump buffer system using +22C (68F) PCM to stabilise the water heat balance circuit. Normal practice is to use boiler and chiller to balance and keep this common circuit around 20~24C (68~72F) against over-heating and over-cooling. This process follows a 24 hour cycle and over a 24 hours period main circuit heated part of the day but later cooled and therefore chiller and boiler has to kick in respectively to balance the crcuit. A PCM tank as art of this circuit may eliminate the need for a chiller and boiler by absorbing excess heat and cold as a shock absorber and maintain the main circuit within the operational limits and not having boiler / chiller energy consumption a PCM energy storage offers a significant reduction in running cost and environmentally friendly option.
A passive both energy and maintenance free cooling concept using PCM tubes charged by the cold night ambient within the ceiling void and stored energy during day-time avoid overheating the space.
Zero energy building using cool PCM storage to shift the cooling load for day-time to night-time for Malaysian ambient conditions. Further details can be found http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kDdvL2N7LUI
Office building using excess capacity of the chillers over-night providing a cool PCM storage TES for the passive chilled ceiling circuit for a UK office building application. Sensible cooling loads of the building is taken out using free cooling circuit having +13C (55F) PCM solution packed in FlatICE containers providing 1,200 kWh ( 341 RT-h) TES capacity which provided water 15C ( 59F) for the chilled ceiling and if and when required chillers run at +5C (45F) to dehumidity the building during day times and also if the ambient does not allow free charging of the PCM tank they run during off-peak night periods.
Free office building cooling using PCM to store energy over-night and use this stored energy during day-time. For full details refer to http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/Environment/CH2
Large Scale ground source heat pump PCM energy storage application for both hot and cold side of the heat pump circuits using BallICE product.
Large Scale ground source heat pump PCM energy storage application for both hot and cold side of the circuits using FlatICE product in pressurised tanks.
Large Scale ground source heat pump PCM energy storage application for both hot and cold side of the circuits using FlatICE product in atmospheric tanks.
A typical cool storage application for new and retrofit chilled water TES application.
Consultant Engineering Journal article of large scale heat pump PCM energy storage application (654Kb)
By simply applying PCM energy storage on both Hot and Cold side of the conventional system, eliminating the ground usage for a commercial heap pump application.
Using PCM Stainless Steel balls filled with +58C ( 136F) PCM material, designers managed to increase the standard domestic solar hot water calarifier capacity three fold and in return this higher capacity satisfied the excessive hot water demand during the games as the occupancy levels evry almost three times than an average family as these houses are designed to be offered to public after the games.