Global PCM based Building Services Application Examples
TheThe royal wolverhampton hospital, uk hot & chilled water energy storage system (305kb) As the hospital heating and cooling loads vary significantly a simple 20 m3 hot water TES tank is found to be the optimum solution and provides 930 kWh (3,173 MBtu) heating load shifting while a seperate 30 m3 PCM tanks filled with +10C (50F) FlatICE containers provides 1,500 kWh (426 RT-h) chilled water cooling load shiftng capability which enbaled the designers to reduce both heating and coling equipment sizes as much as by half. The royal wolverhampton hospital, uk hot & chilled water energy storage system (305kb) As the hospital heating and cooling loads vary significantly a simple 20 m3 hot water TES tank is found to be the optimum solution and provides 930 kWh (3,173 MBtu) heating load shifting while a seperate 30 m3 PCM tanks filled with +10C (50F) FlatICE containers provides 1,500 kWh (426 RT-h) chilled water cooling load shiftng capability which enbaled the designers to reduce both heating and coling equipment sizes as much as by half. The royal wolverhampton hospital, uk hot & chilled water energy storage system (305kb) As the hospital heating and cooling loads vary significantly a simple 20 m3 hot water TES tank is found to be the optimum solution and provides 930 kWh (3,173 MBtu) heating load shifting while a seperate 30 m3 PCM tanks filled with +10C (50F) FlatICE containers provides 1,500 kWh (426 RT-h) chilled water cooling load shiftng capability which enbaled the designers to reduce both heating and coling equipment sizes as much as by half. The royal wolverhampton hospital, uk hot & chilled water energy storage system (305kb) The royal wolverhampton hospital, uk hot & chilled water energy storaThe royal wolverhampton hospital, uk hot & chilled water energy storage system (305kb)
As the hospital heating and cooling loads vary significantly a simple 20 m3 hot water TES tank is found to be the optimum solution and provides 930 kWh (3,173 MBtu) heating load shifting while a seperate 30 m3 PCM tanks filled with +10C (50F) FlatICE containers provides 1,500 kWh (426 RT-h) chilled water cooling load shiftng capability which enbaled the designers to reduce both heating and coling equipment sizes as much as by half.
jeddah / makkah / madhina / kaec, K.S.A. pcm energy storage system (177 kb)
High speed trains serving between Jeddah & KAEC and Holly cities connected with local stations in each city but as the ambinet temperarures during day time exceeding 55C (131F) levels as oposed to night time of 30C (86F) . Hence, a simple +10C (50F) PCM energy storage using conventional 7C (45F) to charging the TES tanks ( Jeddah = 3,200 kWh (909 RT-h) / Madhina 3,200 kWh (909 RT-h) / KAEC 3,200 kWh (909 RT-h) / MAKKAH (10,000 kWh ( 2,840 RT-h) over night enables the designer not only shifting day peak loads to night time and effectively reducing the number of chillers required for the peak load but also by running the chillers at night time with lower ambinet conditions reduced the actual power consumption as much as 35~45% in comparison with the day operation for a given cooling load and furthermore rnning cooler chillers increase the life of the machines and reduce the maintennace cost in the long run.
Thermal Energy Storage (TES) bridges the time gap between energy requirement and energy use. This PCM-TES campus installation near Oslo, Norwayutilises the installed infrastructure and by spreading the load over a 24 hour period one can installed half the number of mechanical cooling machines for the same peak loads.Like any other educational facility bulk of the peak load occurs once the buildings are occupied but after office hours this large peak load subsides significantly. This campus PCM energy storage can be considered as a useful tool to spread the loads over 24 hours periods and thereby not only reduced the initial investment cost but also it offers reduced operational cost. 200 m3 (52,834 USG) pressurised 3 Nos tank buried and landscaped next to the building accommodating 40,000 FlatICE containers filled with +10C (50F) PCM Providing 9.0 MWh (2,560 RT-h)TES Capacity
Like any commercial building whereby a large cooling demand required during day time but very little or no cooling demand over-night, Installed PCM Thermal Energy Storage (TES) offered a great opportunity to utilise the cooling machinery over-night using lower electricity rates as well as higher efficiencies due to lower night time ambient in Israel and effectively enabling to shift the peak loads. Hence, PCM based TES offered not only an environmentally friendly design but also provided a significant operational running cost savings. Also having a static system a PCM energy storage system can be considered as a maintenance free system providing a stand-by capability in case of power cuts or any major machinery failures. 100 m3 ( 26,417 USG)Atmospheric rectangular tank loaded with 20,000 FlatICE filled with S9 (+9C/49F)PCM Providing 4.5 MWh (1,278 RT-h)TES capacity.
Cosidering a large swing between day and night temperature as well as a significant cost difference between peak and off-peak utility cost an addition of a 13 m3 (795 USG) tank filled with +10C (50F) FlatICE containers providing 550 kWh (156 RT-h) load shifting capability offered the end user a flexibility, reducen runnig cost and further stand-by capability.
This building is rewarded the LEED 2009 Platinum Ward and achieved 31/37 score and PCM energy storage using a 25 m3 (6,625 USG) tank filled with +10C / 50F FlatICE containers providing 1,250 kWh (355 RT-h) load shifting capability for the operator provided a useful to achieve this high score.
Conventional chilled water system complimented using 30 m3 (~8,000USG) tank filled with +8C (47F) FlatICE containers providing 1,300 kWh (369 RT-h) load shifting capability from peak periods to off-peak periods as well as providing a stand-by cooling capability without the need for a generator.
As being in central London the only way to add any TES capacity was to build a 40m3 site built sectional pre-insulated rectangular tank which is filled with 8C (47F) to compliment the existing chilled water circuit providing ~ 2,000 kWh (568 RT-h) load shifting capability as well as increasing the cooling capability.
Using FlatICE filled with (47F) PCM in a 45 m3 (~12,000USG) tank chilled water circuit can shift the peak loads as much as 2,000 kWh ( 568 RT-h) and provide a full stand-by capability in case any power failure as well as utilsing the low night ambient and utility cost reduce significant annual running cost.
State of the art Cleantech-2 building incorporates 11.5C (52.7F) PCM tank with a capacity of holding 28,000 FlatICE containers providing 7,200 kWh (2,00 RT-h) enegy storage capacity to shift the peak loads.
New Terminal 3 for the Bergen Airport utilise 4 x 60 m3 10C (50F) PCM tanks with ~10MWH (2,840 RT-h) energy storage to shift the peak loads and spread the cooling loads over 24 hours and effectively reduce the cooling machinery, peak power demand and annual running cost by storing excess capacity from the chillers at overnight lower ambient & low load conditions.
PCM based TES tanks with 420 kWh (120 RT-h) capacity filled with +8C (47F) FlatICE containers provide a back up facility for the data centre cooling as opposed to generators to run the cooling machinery. In case of any power failure these PCM tanks handle the cooling without the chillers.
PCM energy storage spreads the loads over 24 hours periods and therefore a carefully balanced PCM energy storage not only reduces the initial investment cost but also it offers reduced operational cost. Utilising the diversification for a large scale energy centres like University of Bergen, Norway PCM energy storage(12,000 kWh (3,000 Ton-hr) using +10C (50F) PCM material acts as a buffer to handle large spikes, hence, steady overall operation for the system.
A video link of the system can be watched http://www.nrk.no/nett-tv/indeks/295683/
PCM storage is added for the existing chilled water circuit in order to provide a data centre back up in case of power failure as well as load shifting. In stead of a generator back up to run the chillers this system has a +8C (47F) , 6 m3 (1,590 USG) , 270 (77 RT-h) PCM tank permenantly charged on the supply like of chilled water 5~7C (45~50F) and if the power is lost this stored energy can handle the 2 hours emergency cooling.
Redevelopment and modernization of the Federal Center South complex near Seattle, USA funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, will provide a secure base for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
The building is expected to attain gold certification in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design from the U.S. Green Building Council. A number of energy saving technologies are incorporated as part of the design such as extensive use of natural daylight, and an energy-efficient heating, ventilation and air conditioning system that uses under-floor air distribution. 1,050 kWh (300 ton-hr) using +13C (55F) PCM energy storage is also selected as part of this energy reduction design. Further details can be found;
Qatar's bid for FIFA 2022 Worldcup, a full scale demostration stadium using only SUN to run air conditioning using PCM energy storage 5,000 kWh (1,420 Ton-hr). Using parabollic solar concentrators oil is heated to drive the absorbtion chiller which in return charged a large PCM tank filled with +10F (50F) FlatICE containers and later once the sun goes down this stored energy provided the cooling for the enclosed stadium as a totally off-grid system.
Geothermal heat pump system can heat or cool while using the ground source but this building using PCM based TES both hot (1,200 kWh (4,095 MBtu) using 46C (115F) PCM solution) and cold ( 900 kWh ( 256 RT-h) using +10C (50F) PCM soluton) side if the H/P are stored above ground in TES tanks and therefore this new concept simultaneously can prove heating and cooling from a single central plant to control both the space temperature but the humidity too as this was critical for the Italian Electronic factory application.
Large scale coolth PCM storage as part of the district chilled water circuit applied for a West Australian office / city centre complex. Utilising the existing machinery the new extension cooling loads are covered by simply running the existing system over-night and store the surplus capacity in 80m3 (21,200 USG) site built rectangular tank filled with 12,500 FlatICE using +8C (47F) PCM solution providing 4,000 kWh (1,136 RT-h) cooling capacity.
Passive ceiling heat pipe + PCM comfort cooling application in the UK. Using standard ceiling fans and PCM+Heat Pipe arrangement provided a hybrid 22C (71F) PCM based dynamic passive cooling. Over-night exposed fin section of the PCM+Heat Pipe acts as condenser while the other side froze the PCM and during day-time the same exposed section reveresed and acts as evaporator and provide cool downward air for cooling.
Water based heat pump buffer system using +22C (68F) PCM to stabilise the water heat balance circuit. Normal practice is to use boiler and chiller to balance and keep this common circuit around 20~24C (68~72F) against over-heating and over-cooling. This process follows a 24 hour cycle and over a 24 hours period main circuit heated part of the day but later cooled and therefore chiller and boiler has to kick in respectively to balance the crcuit. A PCM tank as art of this circuit may eliminate the need for a chiller and boiler by absorbing excess heat and cold as a shock absorber and maintain the main circuit within the operational limits and not having boiler / chiller energy consumption a PCM energy storage offers a significant reduction in running cost and environmentally friendly option.
A passive both energy and maintenance free cooling concept using PCM tubes charged by the cold night ambient within the ceiling void and stored energy during day-time avoid overheating the space.
Zero energy building using cool PCM storage to shift the cooling load for day-time to night-time for Malaysian ambient conditions. Further details can be found http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kDdvL2N7LUI
PCM energy storage extends the operation periods of a CHP. Rather than shutting down the CHP system by adding a cold +10C (50F) PCM energy storage (2,000 kWh (568 Ton-hr) simply it can either use the surplus waste heat or electricity to charge a coolth energy storage while providing the required heat or electricity output. This concept has been successfully applied for the National Theatre site in London whereby the building had requirements for all three services i.e. electricity, cooling and heating all year round.
Office building using excess capacity of the chillers over-night providing a cool PCM storage TES for the passive chilled ceiling circuit for a UK office building application. Sensible cooling loads of the building is taken out using free cooling circuit having +13C (55F) PCM solution packed in FlatICE containers providing 1,200 kWh ( 341 RT-h) TES capacity which provided water 15C ( 59F) for the chilled ceiling and if and when required chillers run at +5C (45F) to dehumidity the building during day times and also if the ambient does not allow free charging of the PCM tank they run during off-peak night periods.
Free office building cooling using PCM to store energy over-night and use this stored energy during day-time. For full details refer to http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/Environment/CH2
Large Scale ground source heat pump PCM energy storage application for both hot and cold side of the heat pump circuits using BallICE product.
Large Scale ground source heat pump PCM energy storage application for both hot and cold side of the circuits using FlatICE product in pressurised tanks.
Large Scale ground source heat pump PCM energy storage application for both hot and cold side of the circuits using FlatICE product in atmospheric tanks.
A typical cool storage application for new and retrofit chilled water TES application.
Consultant Engineering Journal article of large scale heat pump PCM energy storage application (654Kb)
By simply applying PCM energy storage on both Hot and Cold side of the conventional system, eliminating the ground usage for a commercial heap pump application.
Using PCM Stainless Steel balls filled with +58C ( 136F) PCM material, designers managed to increase the standard domestic solar hot water calarifier capacity three fold and in return this higher capacity satisfied the excessive hot water demand during the games as the occupancy levels evry almost three times than an average family as these houses are designed to be offered to public after the games.
Considering 55C (130F) peak day time ambient temperature vs. 28C (82F) night time ambientcondition if one can store that cool night energy and utilising this FREE stored energy during day peak period one can reduce the outside air cooling demand during peak ambient conditionssignificantly.
For this purpose a special tunnel built to accommodate the PCM containers whereby when the surrounding air temperature is less than the PCM solution generally during night time, these containers freeze naturally by the surrounding cooler night ambient and later this stored energy in the form of latent heat can be released back to the air supply system during daytime to cool the incoming air for the outside air supply requirement for the museum. Almost the total daily sensible heat gains due to outsideair supply can be absorbed by the passive cooling tunnel.
As the outside air intake is crucial for public spaces like museums by simply storing cool night energy the overall cooling demand can be reduced significantly especially locations whereby the day time ambient reaches as high as 55C (130F) anywhere in the Middle East.Each chamber 2.5m(8’) (W) x 2.0m (61/2’) (L) x 2.5m (8’) (H) filled with 10 wide x 58 high FlatICE stack.Total 4 chambers accommodate 9,280 FlatICE filled with S32 (+32C/ F) PCM solution providing 2.0 MWh (595 RT-h)TES capacity.