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Encapsulation is absolutely critical for all water based phase change materials, i.e sub-zero eutectic and salt hydrate based PCMs. If these materials are exposed to the atmosphere, the water content of the PCM changes, either by evaporation or, in some cases, absorption. Because the ratio of water to salts is precisely defined for each PCM, any change in this ratio results in loss of performance and ultimately complete failure of the PCM. We offer a number of different encapsulation techniques depending on the properties of the PCM and the operational requirements.



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Further Information


Thermal energy storage systems and applications
by İbrahim Dinçer, Marc A. Rosen 
View Book

Thermal energy storage for commercial applications: a feasibility study 
by Frank Dinter, Michael A. Geyer, Rainer Tamme
View Book

Thermal Energy Storage: Basics, Design, Applications to Power Generation and Heat Supply
G. Beckmann & P.V. Gilli
View Book

Energy storage: a nontechnical guide‎
by Richard Baxter
View Book

Energy storage‎
by Johannes Jensen
View Book

Source Energy and Environmental Impacts of Thermal Energy Storage
By Pete Wilson, Governor, California Energy Commission
View Paper

HVAC: Cool Thermal Storage
Thermal Energy Storage Write Up
View PDF


ASHRAE Journal (USA)

CIBSE Journal (UK)

RAC Journal (UK)

JARN Journal (Japan)

International Institute of Refrigeration (France)


The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (UK)


The International Institute of Refrigeration (France)

Institute of Refrigeration (UK)

Web Resources

Thermal energy storage, from Wikipedia